History of the scince of palmistry

HISTORY OF THE SCIENCE OF PALMISTRY
 
From India and Arab, the art of hand-reading spread to China. Tibet, Egypt, Persia and to there countries in Europe. Palmistry came to Arab about 6,000 years before the birth of Christ. It progressed well in Greece where Anaxagoras practiced it in 432 B.C. Other Greek scholars, such as Aristotle, Pliny, Pericles and Cardamis, the Roman Emperor Augustus and the philosopher Albertus Magnus have mentioned it in their writing.
 
During the middle Ages, however, the Church was against the practice of Palmistry, and its development suffered a setback. But Prof. Hartiliech dared to publish his book, Die Kunst Circomantia, in 1475 A.D., against the restrictions imposed by the Church. Antiochus Tibertus, a famous Italian chiromant, wrote Chyromantia Novamentre Revista con Somma diligentia corretta estampata in 1534. In the 17th century, as the restrictions from the Church relaxed, Palmistry gained popularity and several valuable books were published in America, Europe and other parts of the World.
 
Adrien Adolphe Desbarrolles (1801 – 1886) was a great chiromant and a student of Adolphb Henze, a great German author and first discoverer of graphology. Desbarrolles wrote his famous book ‘Les Mysteres de la Main’ (Paris, 1859). Other writers such as Comte C. de, Saint Germaine, Louise Cotton, A.R.Craig, G.W.Gressmann, and R.R. Chatterjee followed his in writing on palmistry.
 
During the last 100 years, several well-known palmists, mostly German, French, English, Italian, Indian, and Bangladeshi dominated the stage. Count Louis Hamon, an Irishman who became famous by the name of Cheiro, and W.G.Benham propounded the scientific approach to palmistry. Noel Jaquin investigated the ridges on the palm and added a new chapter to the science of palmistry.
 
The hand is an important organ which has evolved to perfection in the human body. It is an organ capable of expressing feelings and thoughts by gestures and writings. Aristotle has said, “The hand is an organ of organs.” When a person controls his facial expression and speech, his hand speaks.
 
Why are there lines on the palm? What do these lines signify? Several explanations have been given by renowned palmists, but it is certain that lines are not made by Nature at random or by folds of the hand or by its use or working, since there is nothing in this vast universe which is not governed by some law or the other. St. Germaine mentions a vital fluid, which permeates the human body, leaving its marks on the palms and then running up to the brain, as the cause for the presence of lines of the palm. He also points to the aura, the unexplained, imponderable atmosphere that surrounds us.
 
Early in 1944. V.S. Grishchenko of Russia discovered bioplasma in the human body. Recently, a Soviet scientist and photographer, S.D. Kirlian, has been able to photograph the aura (energy or plasma body) of a person. By the study of the auroric photograph, any illness, which is likely to attack a person, can be diagnosed six months in advance.
 
According to Cheiro, the presence of lines on a palm is due to the action of nervous fluid, more subtle than electricity, that runs from the brain to the fingers and palm, which contain more nerves than any other part of the body.
 
William G. Benham says in his laws of Scientific Hand-reading that life currents emanate from an external source and enter the body, i.e., some omnipotent force outside of us all, gives life and takes it away.
 
Lines are formed by brain cells acting through the blood vessels and nerves. Perhaps Nature’s imprint on the palms is caused by the workings of the subconscious mind which is a store-house of past accumulated desires, impressions and action (vasanas, sanskaras and karmas) of many previous births. According to Hindus philosophy, a person takes birth according to his/her past actions (karmas), the mental state at the time of his/her death, place and environment and acquires parentage and personal physique which he/she deserves according to his/her past actions.
 
Samudrik Shastra deals with signs and marks on the human body and hand. Each feature has its meaning and so have the lines on the hand. Man’s character is depicted by his hand, head, ears and other limbs as also by the lines on his palm which foretell the main events of his life.
 
As human beings differ in shape, features, constitution, etc., so do the lines on the palms-so much so that the ridges on the thumb and papillary lines on the fingers and the thumb do not agree
 
With those on any other thumb and fingers even from amongst 100 crores (1billion) of people! Curiously, the ridges on the thumb and fingers do not change even in a life-time.
 
These ridges can not be erased or destroyed even by the use of acid; they reappear and hence their importance in forensic science for preserving the fingerprints of criminals by the police and such other investigation agencies all over the world. Signatures can be forged, but not thumb impressions.
 
Palmistry and astrology are allied subjects. While Palmistry is a lined sketch engraved on the palm by Nature, astrology is a painted picture with full details and colours. Lines on the hand can not betray its owner. These are nature’s marks and are definite and accurate. Lines on the hands of twins born under the same Lagna (during birth time Ascendant) are different. A good palmist can easily tell the characteristics and the important events of a person accurately. Now-a-days some professionals develop minor power of mind-reading or combine and cross cheek palmistry with astrology, numerology or other fortune telling methods, By these way they want to establish that palmistry and astrology go hand in hand and are only different disciplines for unveiling the same object i.e. past, present and future of a person.
 
Why does one want to know the future? Can anybody alter or modify the future if he knows it beforehand? To answer these questions Allah Leo’s comment is essentially fine. “The knowledge of the science of astrology is indispensible to lead a healthy, happy and contented life.”